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THE LITHUANIAN METRICA History and Research Lithuanian Studies Without Borders Series Editor Darius Staliūnas (Lithuanian Institute of History) Editorial Board Zenonas Norkus (Vilnius University) Shaul Stampfer (Hebrew University) Giedrius Subačius (University of Illinois at Chicago) THE LITHUANIAN METRICA History and Research A RT Ū RA S D U B O N I S, DA R I U S A N TA N AV I Č I U S, RA I M O N DA RAG A U S K I E N Ė, - RA M U N Ė Š M I G E L S KYT Ė S T U K I E N Ė BOSTON 2020 The publication of this book was supported by MG Baltic Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: Dubonis, Artūras, author. | Antanavičius, Darius, 1969- author. | Ragauskienė, Raimonda, author. | Šmigelskytė-Stukienė, Ramunė, 1970- author. | Strunga, Albina, translator. Title: The Lithuanian Metrica : history and research / Artūras Dubonis, Darius Antanavičius, Raimonda Ragauskienė, Ramunė Šmigelskytė-Stukienė ; [translated by Albina Strunga]. Other titles: Susigrąžinant praeiti. English Description: Boston : Academic Studies Press, 2020. | Series: Lithuanian studies without borders | Includes bibliographical references. Identifiers: LCCN 2020000571 (print) | LCCN 2020000572 (ebook) | ISBN 9781644693100 (hardback) | ISBN 9781644693117 (adobe pdf) Subjects: LCSH: Litovskai︠ a ︡ metrika--History. | Archives--Lithuania--History. | Lithuania (Grand Duchy)--History--Sources. | Archival resources--Lithuania. Classification: LCC CD1759.8 .D8313 2020 (print) | LCC CD1759.8 (ebook) | DDC 016.94793--dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2020000571 LC ebook record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2020000572 Copyright © 2020 Academic Studies Press All rights reserved. ISBN 978-1-64469-310-0 (hardback) ISBN 978-1-64469-311-7 (adobe pdf) Book design by Lapiz Digital Services. Cover design by Ivan Grave. Published by Academic Studies Press. 1577 Beacon Street Brookline, MA 02446, USA press@ academicstudiespress.com www.academicstudiespress.com Contents Preface#8;vii 1. The Lithuanian Metrica: The Concept, Term, and Archival Characteristics #8; 1 2. The Grand Issue of the History of the Lithuanian Metrica—the Appearance of the Books (until the Late Sixteenth Century) #8; 14 3. The Chancellery of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Lithuanian Metrica in the Fifteenth–First Half of the Sixteenth Centuries#8; 38 4. The Chancellery of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Lithuanian Metrica in the Mid-Sixteenth– First Quarter of the Seventeenth Centuries #8; 58 5. The Chancellery of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and its Staff from the 1620s to the Eighteenth Century #8; 85 6. Structure, Handling, and Control Issues Regarding the Lithuanian Metrica #8; 101 7. Storage of the Lithuanian Metrica: Balancing State Interests and Personal Whims#8; 131 8. The Eighteenth Century—a Time of Journeys: The Lithuanian Metrica between Vilnius, Warsaw, and Saint Petersburg #8; 146 9. In Foreign Hands #8; 180 10. Research and Publishing#8; 201 Bibliography#8;224 Index#8;245 Preface The name “Lithuanian Metrica” refers to the books compiled from copied documents that were issued from or found their way into the chancellery of the Lithuanian grand duke. These books contain privileges granted to state territories (lands, duchies, etc.), the estates, individuals and cities, various acts, the ruler’s and other court decrees and other related documentation, material regarding various diplomatic activities (ranging from Sweden to Turkey, from the Vatican to Rus′, the Golden Horde and the Crimean Khanate Tatars), treasury documents, property inventories of the ruler and nobility, auxiliary chartulary books, and so forth. The oldest documents of the Lithuanian Metrica, the actual archive of the ruler and the state, go back to the times of pagan Lithuania (the treaty of 1367 signed by Grand Duke Algirdas and Duke Kęstutis with Livonia). More documents start to appear from the years 1385–1387; from the political-strategic union with Poland and the baptism of Lithuania, while the latest documents date to the end of the eighteenth century. The development of the Lithuanian Metrica was associated with the documentation of the Lithuanian grand duke’s governmental functions—this chartulary was conducted through his chancellery via the activities of state officials subordinate to him, which is why the Lithuanian Metrica is justifiably considered the main archive of the early Lithuanian state. When neighboring Russia, Prussia, and Austria, greedy for new lands, destroyed the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1772–1795, the Lithuanian Metrica fell into Russian hands. An entry in the Vilnius City book of expenses written on August 11, 1794 tells us how the transportation of the Lithuanian Metrica to Saint Petersburg was organized. On January 9–18, 1795, a sum of 157 złoty was allocated from the Vilnius magistrate to pay for its transportation, plus another twenty groschen as payment to the carpenter for the construction of twenty crates and the blacksmith for producing bindings and nails and encasing the crates, as well as for repairing the door to the metrykant’s room. A wagon train from Vilnius made its viii Preface way to Riga, from where ships set sail for Saint Petersburg. According to the transfer act, the Senate of the Russian Empire took over 834 books, fourteen files in carton boxes, and sixteen bundles of loose documents. The entire past of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, all of the deeds and secrets of its rulers, grand dukes, and kings, documented since the middle of the fourteenth century, had thus fallen into the hands of its old competitor, enemy, political protector, at times its friend and ally, the tsar of the Grand Duchy of Muscovy, later, the emperor of the Russian Empire. The Lithuanian Metrica is currently kept in the State Russian Archive of Early Acts (Rossiskii gosudarstvennyi arkhiv drevnikh aktov, f. 389) in Moscow. Several books of the Lithuanian Metrica have at some stage ended up in some Polish archives, manuscript collections, libraries, in addition to the few that are in Vilnius. Documents from the Lithuanian Metrica started being published in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, in Vilnius and in Poland from the middle of the eighteenth century. When the Russian Empire, the new imposter feigning to be the master of the destroyed state, opened up these state trophies— the books of the Lithuanian Metrica—at the end of the eighteenth century, the invaluable political, cultural, and scientific treasure it had taken possession of became immediately apparent. After more thorough examination of the material, the Lithuanian Metrica was viewed as an inexhaustible source of historical knowledge that reveals the most consistent and comprehensive digest of the history of Lithuania and Belarus, to a lesser extent, of Ukraine and Poland as well, not to mention the volumes of material on the past of Russia, Prussia, Latvia, and Estonia. In the Russian Empire, research of the Metrica commenced and intensified, the publication of its documents and books occurred on a grander scale. However, the Bolshevik revolution of 1917 brought an end to this scientific activity. The research and publication of the Lithuanian Metrica only attempted to be revived towards the end of the Soviet period, at which stage the then Soviet Institute of History of the Lithuanian Academy of Sciences and a Lithuanian Statutes and Metrica research group from Vilnius University became involved. This is the fourth decade of scientific research and publication of the Lithuanian Metrica since 1985 at the Lithuanian Institute of History. May this book about the historic relic of the Lithuanian state mark the anniversary of three decades of Lithuanian scientists’ contribution to this important work, which all too often goes by unnoticed in society. Readers will immediately notice that the text in this book is not constructed according to a historical-chronological order, but follows a Preface ix problematic-thematic progression, and that sometimes only guidelines of the research are presented, or questions and issues for future consideration are formulated—the material does not claim the status of perfected, final scientific results. In our view, a scientific text in precisely this format most accurately represents the scale of current issues associated with the research of the Lithuanian Metrica. The fact that less light is shed on the pages from the past of this historical source, and the contradicting opinions of authors on certain questions point to the topics that demand further study in the future, or could perhaps even help formulate questions for more thorough research. For example, the chapter on research and publication is in effect a summary of guidelines for future research, while the role of Simonas Daukantas in the history of the Lithuanian Metrica in the nineteenth century could easily be expanded into a separate scientific study. Some of the topics that are presented are of an archival research nature, and it could appear as if the book’s authors, who are historians, used methods specific to this field too liberally. We trust that in the future, if other specialists take a deeper interest in the fate of the Lithuanian Metrica and other archives of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, they shall correct the authors’ ideas and find answers to many of the questions that remain unanswered or solve problems that are hitherto unresolved. We hope that the differing ways the text appears in the book shall not be a burden to readers, as each author has their own individual style of interpreting and presenting historic material. The authors of this book sincerely thank the following peer reviewers for closely reading the manuscript of this monograph and for correcting the errors they noticed. We thank Algirdas Baliulis (Vilnius), Rūta Čapaitė (Vilnius), Aleksandr Dounar (Minsk), Aleh Dziarnovich (Minsk), Aliaksandr Hrusha (Minsk), Andrius Jurkevičius (Vilnius), Mindaugas Klovas (Vilnius), Andrei Macuk (Minsk), Sergei Polekhov (Moscow), and Andrei Ryčkov (Vilnius) for their bibliographic assistance. We also thank Aleksei Andronov (Saint Petersburg), the Director of the Lithuanian Art Museum Romualdas Budrys (Vilnius), Klaudijus Driskius (Vilnius), the former Director of the Institute of Lithuanian Literature and Folklore Mindaugas Kvietkauskas, the Director of the Wróblewski Library of the Lithuanian Academy of Sciences Sigitas Narbutas (Vilnius), Vika Petrikaitė (Vilnius), the State Archives in Lublin (Poland), and the family of academic Konstantinas Jablonskis for their permission to use important illustrations in this book. Chapter 1 The Lithuanian Metrica: The Concept, Term, and Archival Characteristics Anyone that has taken even a slight interest in Lithuania’s past will have heard mention of the Lithuanian Metrica. Specific articles can be found in encyclopedias and entries in Lithuanian dictionaries, which present a longer or shorter definition of this concept and the most important related historical facts. But could a history professional, an expert in this field, provide a precise definition in one or two sentences of what the Lithuanian Metrica actually is? Looking through encyclopedia articles and dictionaries, we learn that this is not such an easy task. In some cases, the Lithuanian Metrica is defined as the state archives of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, elsewhere it is the Duchy’s chancellery documents, in other places, it is described as the books of copies of the state chancellery’s documents. We might also be caught unawares if asked what the words “Lithuanian Metrica” actually mean, and how they are connected to the mentioned concept’s definitions. It is indeed difficult to concisely explain what the words “Lithuanian Metrica” meant and mean today. We can first of all say that in order to give a simple description of this compound, it must first be divided into two, as the first word “Lithuanian” does not carry the same meaning as we understand it today, while the word “Metrica” is one of those terms whose real meaning might not even be immediately clear to a professional historian without first consulting specialist literature. The word “Metrica,” despite sounding very similar to the oft-heard Lithuanian word metrikai, th 7): 93, 96. 13 Ibid., 95. 8 The Lithuanian Metrica: History and Research She “allowed” it to become the Lithuanian Metrica traditionally from the mid-eighteenth century, when it was transferred together with the Polish (Crown) Metrica to Warsaw. Sułkowska-Kurasiowa was probably 14 the first to reproach Stanisław Ptaszycki for giving the misleading term “Lithuanian Metrica” in the inventory published in 1887 to the entirety of books kept in the Imperial Senate, as they did indeed only make up a fraction of the collection, alongside the Crown Metrica. 15 The mentioned author’s provisions were adopted as being conceptual and were further used in the work of the American scientist and archivist Patricia Kennedy Grimsted when studying the historical document sets kept in the Soviet Union, and particularly the Lithuanian Metrica —she 16 spent several years cooperating with Sułkowska-Kurasiowa. In her works 17 from the second half of the twentieth century, she described the Lithuanian Metrica (collection 389 of the Russian State Archive of Early Acts) as a fragmented collection, “the so-called Lithuanian Metrica,” that was for18 started and completely formed only in the Russian Empire, where the unsuitable title “Lithuanian Metrica” was entrenched once and for all. She also dates the beginning of the confusion to Ptaszycki’s Inventory, a publication of the description and history of the Lithuanian Metrica in Russia in 1887, where the misleading name of this body of historical sources, a hybrid collection, was entrenched. Actually, in the past this collection 19 14 Ibid., 93. 15 Ibid., 95. 16 P. Kennedy Grimsted, “The Archival Legacy of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania: The Fate of Historical Archives in Vilnius,” Slavonic and East European Review 57, no. 4 (October 1979): 552–571 (The Lithuanian Metrica is discussed on pages 553–557). 17 P. Kennedy Grimsted, with the collaboration of I. Sułkowska-Kurasiowa, The “Lithuanian Metrica” in Moscow and Warsaw: reconstructing the Archives of Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute, 1984), xv. 18 Ibid., 30. A summary of the most important points and conclusions appears in Polish, see: P. Kennedy Grimsted, “Czym jest i czym była Metryka Litewska? (Stan obecny i perspektywy odtworzenia zawartości archiwum kancelaryjnego Wielkiego Księstwa Kwartalnik historyczny Litewskiego),” 92, no. 1 (1985): 55–83. 19 Ibid., 22, 24. Generally speaking, neither Sułkowska-Kurasiowa nor Kennedy Grimsted were the first critics of the term “Lithuanian Metrica.” Professor Sergei Shambinago considered the title that Ptaszycki entrenched a misunderstanding, during negotiations held in 1921 over the return of Lithuanian cultural treasures. The Metrica is a collection of documents regarding the Russian-Ukrainian idea of the Lithuanian state, many of which “affect” Russian lands. See: P. Galaunė, “Lietuvos kultūros turtų likimas,” Mūsų žinynas: karo mokslo ir istorijos žurnalas 4, no. 10 (1923): 90–91. • The Concept, Term, and Archival Characteristics    CHAPTER 1 9 never really had a stable structure, nor were there any clear rules for its compilation, which is why the rewriting, rebinding, transfer, and reorganization of the body of books of the Metrica (in the late sixteenth century) constantly presents the problem of its precise definition, conten,t and initial structure. The structure of the present-day Lithuanian Metrica that is kept in Moscow with several books that accidentally appeared in Warsaw, and other supplementary material, would constitute as the fourth significant reorganization. The books of the Lithuanian chancellery make up a part of this fourth, new complex of material. 20 The American researcher has grounds for her criticism. The Lithuanian Metrica that was transported to Saint Petersburg at the end of the eighteenth century was kept there together with the Polish (Crown) Metrica, so when the term Lithuanian Metrica became established in 1887, the Lithuanian connotation was overemphasized, as by itself, it covered less than half of the set of historical sources described in the Russian Empire. This title was too 21 metrica. broad and did not suit the historical-archival use of the term Using Polish archival and historical Polish dictionaries from the second half of the twentieth century, she gave the narrowest, historically correct meaning of the word—they were only the books of inscriptions of the chancellery of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. 22 She agreed with Sułkowska-Kurasiowa that in the broader sense, the Lithuanian Metrica used to be applied, technically speaking, to all the books of the grand duchy’s chancellery. On the other hand, it is wrong to take the historically formed extended meaning of the Lithuanian Metrica and apply it liberally to all the archives of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, 23 especially as the documents of other institutions, original parchment documents, privileges, foreign treaties, received documents, and so forth, could have also been kept with the Metrica. The reason for this method of compilation is that from the very beginning, the Metrica books and unbound documents, and state privileges, were kept in the same location—the treasury at the rulers’ palace in Vilnius. However, in terms of archivistics, these other documents should not be attributed to the chancellery books of inscriptions as such, nor the Lithuanian Metrica, as from the seventeenth century, these kinds of documents were no longer kept with the books 20 Kennedy Grimsted and I. Sułkowska-Kurasiowa, The “Lithuanian Metrica,” 11. 21 Ibid., 5, 21. 2 emia Umiejętności, 1900). Chapter 3 The Chancellery of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Lithuanian Metrica in the Fifteenth–First Half of the Sixteenth Centuries Thus far in historiography, more attention has gone to the early formation and initial activities of the chancellery (early fifteenth–mid-sixteenth centuries), while the history of this institution in the second half of the sev1 centuries has hardly been studied at all. Our knowl2 of the holders of clerical positions in the early period, the situation 3 1 J. Bardach, “O praktyce kancelarii litewskiej za Zygmunta I Starego,” Studia z ustroju i prawa Wielkiego Księstwa Litewskiego, XIV–XVII w. (Warszawa–Białystok: Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, 1970), 351–378; Hrusha, Kantsyliariia, 2006. Lietuvos Metrika: 2 A. Rachuba, “Kancelarie pieczętarzy WKL w latach 1569–1765,” 1991–1996 metų tyrinėjimai (Vilnius: Lietuvos istorijos institutas, 1998), 256. 3 М. Liubavskii, Litovsko–russkii seim (Moscow: Imperatorskoe obshchestvo istorii i drevnostei rossiiskikh pri Moskovskom universitete, 1900), 386–393; K. Jablonskis, “Lietuvos rusiškųjų aktų diplomatika,” in Istorija ir jos šaltiniai, ed. V. Merkys Lietuvos Didžiosios (Vilnius: Mokslas, 1979), 219–298; A. Dubonis, “Raštininkas,” in Kunigaikštijos kultūra. Tyrinėjimai ir vaizdai, ed. V. Ališauskas, L. Jovaiša, M. Paknys, R. Petrauskas, E. Raila (Vilnius: Aidai, 2001), 574–587. • The Fifteenth–First Half of the Sixteenth Centuries    CHAPTER 3 39 of the chancellor in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and the particularities 4 of chartulary in the chancellery of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania has all 5 been systematized. Episodes from the chancellery’s bureaucratic structure, the importance of clientele-backed connections to enter the chancellery, 6 and mechanisms for the realization of group and personal interests are revealed in studies about the figures who worked in this institution (from chancellors to clerks). The research of specific personalities has not been equal: Monographs or limited biographical studies of almost all of the leaders of the chancellery of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania have been released, while the lack of sources means little is known about the careers of the lower-ranked officials. However, the simultaneous holding of several offices and the convolution of public and private interests means it is important to distinguish the functions of the chancellor and vice-chancellor in the chancellery. Thus, presenting a comprehensive picture of the institution whose activities gave rise to the Lithuanian Metrica, its handling and safekeeping during the entire period of its existence (fifteenth–eighteenth centuries) is a difficult task indeed. Numerous reorganizations and significant changes characterize its development. The composition of its staff, their competency, and functions all changed. This is especially evident in the activities of the most important figures in the chancellery—the chancellor and vice-chancellor of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. From the middle of the fifteenth century (1449) until the demise of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, we know of twenty-two chancellors appointed by the rulers of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and several other individuals who either temporarily held these offices or were titled as nominal chancellors for a special mission. When the office of vice-chancellor was established in 7 4 N. A. Skep′an, “Instytut kantslerstva VKL pershai palovy ХVІ st., iak adzin s asnounykh instytutau dziarzhaunai ulady,” Vesnik Grodzenskaga dziarzhaunaga universiteta im. Ianki Kupaly. Gistoryia. Filasofiia. Palotalogiia. Satsyialogiia 3 (2007): 45–50. 5 Jakubowski, “Archiwum państwowe,” 1–18; W. Mikulski, “Dokumenty z archiwum Wielkiego Księstwa Litewskiego w archiwum Warszawskim Radziwiłłów,” Miscellanea Historico-Archivistica 7 (1997): 71–83. 6 R. Ragauskienė, “XVI a. ikireforminio Vilniaus pilies teismo raštininko ir Lietuvos Metrikos metrikanto karjera: Motiejaus Savickio (apie 1530–apie 1581) atvejis,” in Inveniens quero. Ieškoti, rasti, nenurimti. Mokslo straipsnių rinkinys, skirtas profesoriui habil. dr. Algirdui Gaižučiui 70-mečio proga, ed. G. Blažienė, S. Grigaravičiūtė and A. Ragauskas (Vilnius: Vilniaus pedagoginio universiteto leidykla, 2011): 566–584. 7 Urzędnicy centralni i dygnitarze Wielkiego Księstwa Litewskiego XIV–XVIII wieku. Spisy, ed. H. Lulewicz and A. Rachuba (Kórnik: Biblioteka K Karalius, Preface, 8–10. • The Fifteenth–First Half of the Sixteenth Centuries    CHAPTER 3 57 of Lord Goštautas’s treasury; a register of Lord Goštautas’s notices and privileges; a register of notices for the purchase of nobles’ lands; copies of notices belonging to the Komarowski, Alekseyev, and other families declaring their right to domains in return for service for the Goštautas family; register of the contribution [dowry] of the daughter of the Vilnius castellan to the Goštautas household. 54 After the death of Albertas Goštautas, the ruler did not appoint a new chancellor for as long as seven years. The chancellery was looked after by the notary and land treasurer Hornostaj, who had earned great influence when Goštautas was still in charge. Even in 1546, when this position was added to the list of duties of the Vilnius palatine Jan Hlebowicz, no major changes were made to working procedures at the chancellery during his almost three years there. In his capacity as the palatine of Vitebsk and Polotsk, the books of the Lithuanian Metrica still contain his copied book (Book 16) of this region’s court decrees, and the collection of privileges granted to Volhynia (Book 22) given to him already as the chancellor, dating to 1547. 55 The cases entered into the books in 1530–1538 were often heard at his private Dubrovna estate. We know of several notaries of the Vilnius palatine: Semion Haraburda in 1543, later, in 1546–1548, and probably until the 56 magnate’s death—Eustachy Wołłowicz. The notaries would accompany 57 him on journeys: In 1536, when Hlebowicz was travelling to his domains in Šalčininkai, one notary lost the magnate’s personal signet ring. 58 54 Lietuvos Metrika (1540–1543): 12-oji Teismų bylų knyga, ed. I. Valikonytė, N. Šlimienė, S. Viskantaitė-Saviščevienė, and L. Steponavičienė (Vilnius: Lietuvos istorijos institutas, 2007), 241. 55 Kennedy Grimsted and I. Sułkowska-Kurasiowa, The “Lithuanian Metrica”, 83–84. Published version of the copied book: Lietuvos Metrika. Knyga Nr. 22 (1547). Užrašymų knyga 22, ed. A. Blanutsa, D. Vashchuk and D. Antanavičius (Vilnius: Lietuvos istorijos institutas, 2010). 56 Urzędnicy centralni i dygnitarze, no. 586, 134. 57 Lithuanian Metrica Book 31, Lithuanian State History Archives, [accessed on microfilm kept at the Lithuanian State History Archives], col. 389, Lithuanian Metrica, notebook 31, 221. 58 Lietuvos Metrika. Knyga Nr. 19 (1535–1537). Užrašymų knyga 19, ed. D. Vilimas, no. 248 (Vilnius: Lietuvos istorijos institutas, 2009), 250. Chapter 4 The Chancellery of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Lithuanian Metrica in the Mid-Sixteenth–First Quarter of the Seventeenth Centuries The history of the chancellery from this period contains several turning points, such as the establishment of the vice-chancellor’s position in 1566 and the division of the chancellery into two parts, or the ordination of King Henry Valois in 1574, which had a major influence on the final formation of the chancellery system. These and other changes in the mentioned period 1 were determined by the internal reforms underway in the state (the Volok Reform, administrative and court reforms) and the gradual entrenchment of the significance of the document. A favorable legislative base ensuring this demand for documentation formed, and certain laws were passed, such as the regulations of 1552 which helped simplify and reduce the cost of recording transactions, audits of land holdings and the nobles’ estate during the Volok Reform, and especially the Second and Third Statutes of Lithuania, not to mention the laws that abolished restrictions on the nobility to freely dispose of land. Political events were also important, such as the Union of Lublin of 1569, 1 Rachuba, “Kan stitutas, 2007), 169–173. Chapter 5 The Chancellery of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and its Staff from the 1620s to the Eighteenth Century The chancellery of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania grew much more productive and specialized. Over two thirds of the surviving books of the Lithuanian Metrica were created in the period discussed in this chapter. The structure of the institution’s personnel also changed. The increased specialization of its staff entrenched the new positions of regent, decree clerk, secretary of the seal and so-called metrykants that characterized the remainder of the period. The tumultuous events in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, draining wars, uprisings, and confederations, and the first two partitions of the state all left their mark. New rules for the functioning of the chancellery formed, the language used in chartulary also changed. As Polonization intensified, in 1697 Polish was officially confirmed as the language to be used in documentation, instead of Ruthenian (Chancellery Slavonic). The complexity of the period is sometimes even physically evident in the chancellery’s documents, like the surviving mud stains on the pages of Book 124 of the Lithuanian Metrica, hurriedly 86 The Lithuanian Metrica: History and Research picked up by some nobleman from the ground at the king’s camp after the Battle of Zborov in 1649. 1 The Highest-Ranked Sworn Officials: Sealbearers (Chancellors) and Notaries During the course of over 170 years (1623–1795), barely ten individuals headed the major chancellery of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Changes in this position were rare: as many as four chancellors held this post for over twenty years, another four held it for more than fifteen years, and only two for more than five years. Albrecht Stanisław Radziwiłł was the longest-serving chancellor at thirty-four years (1623–1656) (fig. 7), second was Krzysztof Zygmunt Pac at twenty-six years in service as chancellor (1658– 1684), Michał Fryderyk Czartoryski—twenty-two years (1752–1775), and Karol Stanisław Radziwiłł—a little over twenty years (1698–1719). Most chancellors were appointed to this office after having served as vice-chancellors. In the period being discussed, a total of sixteen people acted as vice-chancellors—beginning with Paweł Stefan Sapieha (1623–1635) and ending with Kazimierz Konstanty Plater (1746–1807). Unlike the previous 2 period, half of these individuals received these positions without having any prior experience in the chancellery. For example, the land standard-bearer K. Z. Pac was appointed as vice-chancellor after the intercession of his patron, the chancellor at the time A. S. Radziwiłł, and due to his wife’s connections with the ruler’s court: In 1654 the papal nuncio married K. Z. Pac to Klara Isabelle de Mailly, a distant relative of Marie Louise Gonzaga and her first lady-in-waiting. Before long, in 1656, he was appointed as vice-chancellor of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In 1658 he received the majestic seal. Incidentally, the magnate’s wife also succeeded in becoming the first lady-in-waiting of the new ruler Michael Karibut’s wife, Eleanor. Pac was ridiculed somewhat in the pamphlets of the time for “pandering his wife to the new queen like some kind of drinking companion, who extracts all she can of her highness, 1 Lithuanian Metrica Book 124, Lithuanian State History Archives [accessed on microfilm kept at the Lithuanian State History Archives], col. 389, Lithuanian Metrica, notebook 124, p. 1v, 110–111v; Dumin, S. V. “Litovskaia Metrika v XVII veke,” in Issledovania po istorii Litovskoi Metriki, vol. 1, 85. Urzędnicy centralni i respondentai,” 45–46, 50. Chapter 6 Structure, Handling, and Control Issues Regarding the Lithuanian Metrica The history of the emergence and handling of the books of the Lithuanian Metrica is best revealed when studying the activities of the chancellors of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, as the chancellery of the vice-chancellor was only established in 1566 and still is a relatively unresearched institution (the Metrica books attributed to it started being kept only in 1615). The books that originated from the chancellor’s office constituted the main part of the Lithuanian Metrica—the first historic structural unit we know of comes from this particular group. Ptaszycki was the first to recognize the issues of the structure and division of the Lithuanian Metrica into separate groups of books in the introduction to his Inventory published in 1887. At the time, he relied on the existing division of the Lithuanian Metrica, but, for example, he did touch on the so-called books of court records, distinguishing as many as twelve types. Later, Berezhkov presented the most comprehensive study of the 1 problem of the Lithuanian Metrica’s structure to date. His attention turned to the earliest period (the late fifteenth–late sixteenth centuries), even though the first part of his most important resource research work, The Lithuanian Metrica as a History Source, is chronologically narrower and Opisanie, 1 Ptaszycki, 28–35. 102 The Lithuanian Metrica: History and Research only covers the period up to 1522. The main hypothesis and conclusion 2 from Berezhkov’s research was that the books of the Lithuanian Metrica that were rewritten in the late sixteenth century were not identical to the old, initial books. He tried to reconstruct the initial structure of the books from the late fifteenth century until 1520 and revealed around forty-two book groups: 1a) general books of grants (donations) and court decrees; 1b) separate books of grants (donations); 2) separate judicial books; 3) leasehold books (containing leasehold deeds); 4) books containing information about provisions for the ruler’s subjects and expenses for rewarding Tatars; 5) diplomatic legation and treaty books; 6) separate documents not attributed to any one of the mentioned groups; 7) documents not included in the initial structure of the Lithuanian Metrica that emerged when the books were being rewritten at the end of the sixteenth century. 3 Banionis continued with Berezhkov’s research 150 years later. He was 4 probably the only scientist in the late Soviet period to have taken a deeper interest in the issues of the Lithuanian Metrica in the Soviet Union. Banionis unwaveringly agreed with Berezhkov’s hypothesis that the copied books were not identical to the old books (the books of the Lithuanian Metrica rewritten in the late sixteenth century were lost in the mid-seventeenth century). Having analyzed how the term “book” functioned in the chancellery of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, he went further, stating that “there was no large-scale dismantlement of any bound books during the entire sixteenth century, as Berezhkov imagined, as the books themselves did not exist”. 5 In 1984 in the United States, a place in no way related to the Lithuanian Metrica, an innovative study of the Lithuanian Metrica by the American scientist P. Kennedy Grimsted was published. In terms of its form, it was a 6 “cloaked” facsimile of Ptaszycki’s Inventory of the Lithuanian Metrica from 2 Berezhkov, Litovskaia Metrika. 3 Ibid., 140–151. 4 Aside from the extended introduction to Book 5 of the Lithuanian Metrica, the following two most important of his articles on the Lithuanian Metrica should be mentioned: E. Banionis, “Lietuvos Metrikos knygos,” 135–148; E. Banionis, “K voprosu o genezise knig Litovskoi Metriki (posledniaia chetvert′ XV v.),” in Lietuvos Metrika: 1988 metų tyrinėjimai, ed. E. Banionis, Z. Kiaupa, 8–45. 5 Lietuvos Metrika (1427–1506). Knyga Nr. 5. Užrašymų knyga 5, ed. E. Banionis (Vilnius: Mokslo ir enciklopedijų leidykla, 1993), 20: “Никакого распада переплетенных больших по объему книг на протяжении всего XVI в. не происходило, как это представлял Н. Бережков, ибо самих этих книг не было.” The “Lithuanian Metrica.” 6 Kennedy Grimste his (see Ptaszycki, 20). Chapter 7 Storage of the Lithuanian Metrica: Balancing State Interests and Personal Whims The Lithuanian Metrica in the State Treasury A specific problem concerning the Lithuanian Metrica is how and where it, as an archive, had been kept. The Lithuanian Metrica, the “product” of the chancellery’s activities, had to constantly “move around” with the chancellors and other chancellery staff, and of course, had to physically be kept somewhere; however, there is very little information about this from the first half of the sixteenth century. General research associated with the earliest places where documents were stored in the second half of the fourteenth century, the beginnings of an archive, points to the treasuries of Grand Duke Algirdas (1345–1377) and the Duke of Trakai Kęstutis (1341–1382) in the Vilnius and Trakai castles, where the meagre number of documents for that time, usually treaties with foreign rulers, were kept along with all manner of treasure in chests and bags. Keeping important documents and the books of their copies in treasuries was common practice in the neighboring lands of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. So too Jogaila (grand duke from 1377), as a father, kept documents he considered important in the Vilnius castle, but once Vytautas became the grand duke, he chose to have his treasury at the new Trakai castle on the island in Lake Galvė. It is believed 132 The Lithuanian Metrica: History and Research that the originals of documents of state importance and those critical to Vytautas were kept at this treasury, along with treaties with foreign rulers. He dedicated a great deal of attention to correspondence with the 1 rulers of neighboring countries, as sources indicate numerous references to how the grand duke ensured original letters were stored properly and sent copies to his political partners. On the other hand, the Trakai castle 2 Vytautas fortified did not replace the treasury at the Vilnius Lower Castle as the main archive (fig. 12). Based on the information about the storage of one original document at the Trakai castle, scientists asserted that the original constitutional documents of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (privileges, treaties with foreign states) and perhaps any chancellery books of copied documents, the Metrica, continued to be kept there after Vytautas, until 1501, and were only moved to Vilnius in 1501–1511. This information, a notary’s com3 Originales repositae sunt in castro Trocensi sub cura thesaurarii terrestris etc., is written in Book 5 of the Lithuanian Metrica under a copy of the treaty between Grand Duke Alexander and the master of the Livonian Order of June 21, 1501, written in opposition to the ruler of Muscovy. 4 Researchers have made very abrupt assessments of the data, ignoring the nuances of its emergence in terms of handwriting: The notary’s comment was entered under the copy of the document in the Metrica book, that is, it was not in the original, which means the entry does not date to 1501 but sometime later. The copy of this treaty should be associated with a series of fifteen copied documents entered into the same Metrica Book in 1427–1483—Lithuania’s treaties with the Novgorod land, Pskov, the duke of Tver, Moldavian palatines, and so forth, as they were entered into Book 5 of the Lithuanian Metrica immediately after the treaty of 1501 with Livonia. 1 Kosman, “Archiwum wielkiego księcia Witolda,” 132–138. 2 R. Čapaitė, “List jako narzędzie komunikacji wielkiego księcia litewskiego Witolda,” Studia Źrodłoznawcze 50 (2012): 46–47. We thank Čapaitė for this information. Opisanie, 3 This information from Ptaszycki (see Ptaszycki, 4) made its way into a majority of works by Lithuanian Metrica researchers. Banionis doubted this, as he called it, “digest-worthy axiom,” about the Metrica’s storage at Trakai, see: E. Banionis, Įvadas, Lietuvos Metrika. Knyga Nr. 5 (1427–1506). Užrašymų knyga 5, ed. A. Baliulis, A. Dubonis, D. Antanavičius (texts in Latin) (Vilnius: Mokslo ir enciklopedijų leidykla, 2012), 20. Another who agrees with him is Hrusha, “‘Khranit′ vechno,’” 46 (footnote 184, 45–46). Lietuvos Metrika. Kny 1 Ibid., appendix no. 13. Chapter 8 The Eighteenth Century—a Time of Journeys: The Lithuanian Metrica between Vilnius, Warsaw, and Saint Petersburg The history of the Lithuanian Metrica in the eighteenth century is a story of the archive’s constant mobility, and one that is still cloaked in many unanswered questions. If we had to use one word to describe the existence of the Lithuanian Metrica during this century of change, it would have to be “journeys.” Over the course of close to a hundred years, the archive of the Lithuanian state was loaded onto wagons several times and transported from one city to another, from one state to another, until in the last decade of the century, when the Russian Empire occupied the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was abolished, in 1795 it was finally loaded onto ships in Riga sailing for Saint Petersburg. Circumstances for the Archive’s Removal from Vilnius The journeys of the Lithuanian archive began in the first half of the century, when the Lithuanian Metrica was taken from Vilnius to Warsaw. However, • The Eighteenth Century—a Time of Journeys    CHAPTER 8 147 not even today are the reasons for this transfer very clear, nor are the details concerning how the archive was transported. One of the first researchers of metrykant the history of the Lithuanian state archive, the Ptaszycki, stated in the late nineteenth century that the Lithuanian Metrica was taken from Vilnius to Warsaw in around 1765, when the Polish Crown archive was transferred out of Kraków. However, upon finding an entry made in the 1 Lithuanian Metrica Book of Inscriptions 178 by secretary Felix Stanisław Owsiany, declaring that “These acts from the metrica of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, completed on July 6, 1751, were transferred by myself, the undersigned, to the metrica archive of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in Warsaw,” Ptaszycki noted that the archive could have been taken to Warsaw no later than in the second half of 1751. He set an even more specific date 2 for the archive’s transferal to Warsaw when he analyzed the summary of the Lithuanian Metrica books compiled in 1747–1751. In the researcher’s opinion, this register was drawn up when the archive was already in Warsaw. 3 Researchers of the Metrica’s history, I. Sułkowska-Kurasiowa and P. Kennedy Grimsted, also asserted that the Lithuanian state archive was taken to Warsaw in the mid-1740s. It was at this time that a commission for reviewing and describing the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Metrica archives was formed. The date of the transfer is often presented vaguely 4 in Lithuanian historiography, indicating that the Lithuanian Metrica was removed from Vilnius “in the first half of the eighteenth century,” or stating 5 that “before 1765, many of the surviving books had been taken to Warsaw and kept with the Polish (Crown) Metrica.” 6 The circumstances under which the archive was removed have not received further analysis in historiography. Lacking any primary sources, only hypothetical guesses can be made that the decision to move the state archive from Vilnius to Warsaw could have been determined by the need to 1 Ptaszycki, Opisanie, 12. 2 “Te akta metryki W. X. L. die 6 Iulii anno 1751 zakończone, przezemnie niżey podpisanego ad archiwum metryk W. X. L. w Warszawie będących oddane – Owsiany,” ibid., 277. 3 Ptaszycki, “Sumariusz i inwentarze Metryki Litewskiej,” 33. 4 Kennedy Grimsted and Sułkowska-Kurasiowa, The “Lithuanian Metrica,” 14; SułkowskaKurasiowa, “Metryka Litewska,” 93. 5 Z. Kiaupa, “Lietuvos Metrika—Lietuvos bajorų rūpestis XVIII a. pabaigoje,” in Lietuvos Metrika: 1991–1996 metų tyrinėjimai (Vilnius: Lietuvos istorijos institutas, 1998), 193–202. 6 E. Gudavičius, „Lietuvos Metrika,” in Tarybų Lietuvos enciklopedija, vol. 2 (Vilnius: Vyriausioji encikloped cki, “Opisanie,” 13, 153. Chapter 9 In Foreign Hands The Lithuanian Metrica in the Russian Empire After the annexation of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1795, all of the books and documents of the Lithuanian Metrica, along with the Polish Crown Metrica and the Załuski library, as the archives of a nonexistent state, were selected and transported over land and by ship from Riga to the imperial office in Saint Petersburg, the capital of the Russian Empire. This was done by the imperial chancellery councilor Pavel Divov at the order of Empress Catherine II. The leader of the Imperial Cabinet of the Russian Empire was charged with putting the recently requisitioned archives into order. During the reorganization, the books of internal affairs and diplomacy were meant to be separated from the Lithuanian and Polish Metricas and systematized. (The remaining loose documents, books, etc. would end up in the Imperial Public Library several years later) One official was appointed by the Senate to speed up the work, while the Collegium of Foreign Affairs provided seven assistants (among them were three translators). The task was carried out in May, 1798, while in October, both metricas were handed over in parts to imperial institutions. A majority were taken to the Senate (Department III), a smaller portion (according to some data there were seven Lithuanian legation books, other records indicate eleven or twelve) went to the Collegium of Foreign Affairs (known as the Ministry of Foreign Affairs from 1802), from where the legation books and some documents ended up at the Ministry’s Chief Archives in Moscow in 1828 (Moskovskii glavnyi arkhiv ministerstva inostrannykh del). • In Foreign Hands     CHAPTER 9 181 Jegor Kirschbaum oversaw the organization and systematization of both metricas. The first summary (register, list, inventory) of the requisitioned archives of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth has been named after him in some specialist literature. The archive was divided into four parts: the Crown Metrica, the Lithuanian Metrica, the Permanent Council books and acts, and published texts (mostly of a legal nature). The Lithuanian Metrica was described applying the Polish, or Crown Metrica’s, system—books were arranged chronologically into groups according to the nature of the documents: inscriptions, judicial, sigillata lists (registers of issued, stamped documents), provenance and land survey books, and public affairs—a total of 595 books. In addition, there were 249 new books that belonged to the Lithuanian Metrica (unbound, mostly from the second half of the eighteenth century), and thirty loose files in document boxes or “cartons” (fourteen) and bundles (sixteen). The reorganization carried out in Saint 1 Petersburg served as the model based on which the Lithuanian Metrica books were systematized in Russia’s archives. The result was Ptaszycki’s Inventory (fig. 19), mentioned numerous times already in this book. In addition, Kirschbaum’s inventory clearly shows that the Lithuanian Metrica did not “dissolve” in Poland’s archive, but made up a separate complex consisting of the so-called old and new books. Professor Stanisław Ptaszycki (1853–1933), director of the State Archives Figure 19. in Lublin in 1918–1926 (Poland). (35/1479/0 – Archiwum państwowe w Lublinie 1918–1939 [1940–1965], sygn. 20, s. 1) Kniga posol′skaia, 1 From Daniłowicz’s Preface, see iv–v, x–xi, xviii; Ptaszycki, “Opisanie,” 14–15; Avtokratova and Svetenko, “K voprosu,” 107–108; Kennedy Grimsted and The “Lithuanian Metrica,” S chasopis 2 (1996): 55–57. Chapter 10 Research and Publishing Up to the Beginning of the Nineteenth Century The pioneer in research of the Lithuanian Metrica is considered to be the impressively educated erudite, Piarist monk, and rector of the Vilnius Piarist School (1747), Maciej Dogiel—a Lithuanian noble originally from the Lida district (powiat). He prepared an eight-volume anthology of documents of Poland and Lithuania (only three were published), where 1 he also included swathes of material from the state archive of the PolishLithuanian Commonwealth. Three decades later, three documents from the Lithuanian Metrica were released as part of an anthology of Vilnius city privileges by the burgomaster, Piotr Dubiński, in 1788. The culture and literary figure, historian and bishop, Adam Naruszewicz (1733–1796), supported by the king and grand duke of Lithuania, Stanisław August, also used a great deal of material from the Lithuanian Metrica in his work, History of the Polish Nation. His 217-volume document anthology, now known as the Naruszewicz Folios—teki Naruszewicza, contained even more mate2 However, this kind of information was accurate only up to the start Codex diplomaticus Regni Poloniae et M. D. Lithuaniae 1 M. Dogiel, vol. 1 (Vilnae, 1758); ibid., vol. 4 (Vilnae, 1764); vol. 5 (Vilnae, 1759); А. L. Khoroshkevich, “К istorii izdaniia Acta Baltico-Slavica i izucheniia Litovskoi Metriki,” 8 (1973): 72; А. Katilius, “Pervye publikatsii dokumentov LM,” in Litovskaia Metrika: tezisy dokladov mezhrespublikanskoi nauchnoi konferentsii, aprel′ 1988 g., ed. E. Banionis, Z. Kiaupa, and L. Mulevičius (Vilnius: Institut Istorii AN Litovskoi SSR, 1988), 54–55. 2 P. Dubiński, Zbiór praw i przywilejów miastu stołecznemu W. X. L. Wilnowi nadanych (Wilno, 1788); Katilius, “Pervye publikatsii,” 55. 202 The Lithuanian Metrica: History and Research of the twenty-first century, before research on the Metrica had developed, especially in Lithuania. Now we know that the first thematic publication Cnotliwy Litwin. of Lithuanian historical sources was the book from 1592, It features nine original documents about relations between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Livonia in the second half of the sixteenth century. Documents had to be directly or indirectly sourced from state struc3 (the state archive?). Later, Albertas Vijūkas-Kojalavičius (1609–1677), when he wrote his second volume of the history of Lithuania (released in 1669), used a book of Muscovite origins from the second half of the fifteenth–sixteenth centuries, Extract from the Legation Books. The Extract, like the Lithuanian Metrica, was probably kept in the archive of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania until at least the middle of the eighteenth century (in Warsaw in the eighteenth century, it bore the archive registration number 305). Even though it is difficult to ascertain how Vijūkas-Kojalavičius 4 accessed the manuscript, the historian’s contacts with high-ranking state and chancellery officials—the very people who looked after the state documents in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania—were unquestionable, for example, K. L. Sapieha and the ruler’s chancellery regent, J. K. Dowgiałło Zawisza. Naturally, neither of these two examples compare to the scale of document selection or publishing as Dogiel achieved, yet they do point to the developing need in society in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania to have reliable, document-backed historical data presented in the most advanced means of distribution at the time—as a printed book. Count Rumiantsev’s Army The Russian Empire brought an end to the research and publishing of history sources concerning the Grand Duchy of Lithuania at the end of the eighteenth century. Nonetheless, after a break of a couple of decades, the search for and publication of important and valuable documents recommenced, amid the archives now in Russia. At first, this process took place through Istorijos 3 D. Antanavičius, “‘Cnotliwy Litwin’ (1592 m.) autorius ir teksto šaltiniai,” šaltinių tyrimai 4 (2012): 133–155. 4 Kennedy Grimsted and Sułkowska-Kurasiowa, The “Lithuanian Metrica,” Appendices, A-4; D. Antanavičius, “Lietuvos Didžiosios Kunigaikštijos pasiuntinybių į Maskvą šaltinis Alberto Vijūko-Kojalavičiaus Lietuvos istorijoje (šaltiniotyrinė archyvinė Lietuvos istorijos įvairenybės, studija), A. Vijūkas-Kojalavičius,” in ed. Albertas VijūkasKojalavičius, part II (Vilnius: Lietuvių literatūros ir tautosakos i